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the two main types of microscopes used in biology are the compound microscope and the stereo microscope

The Two Main Types of Microscopes Used in Biology Are the Compound Microscope and the Stereo Microscope

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The two types of microscopes used in biology are the compound microscope and the scanning electron microscope. The compound microscope is the more common of the two, and it uses a series of lenses to magnify an image. The scanning electron microscope produces a three-dimensional image by using a beam of electrons instead of light.

Simple Microscope. Simple microscopes are generally considered the first microscope to be used for the observations

A simple microscope is a device that magnifies objects. It generally consists of a lens or lenses mounted in a frame. The first known use of simple microscopes dates back to the 1590s, when Dutch spectacle-makers Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Janssen created devices that used a handful of lenses to magnify objects.

These early microscopes were limited in their ability to magnify objects, but they were still useful for observing small objects such as insects. In the 1670s, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek improved upon the design of the simple microscope, creating devices that could magnify objects up to 270 times their original size. These microscopes were so powerful that they allowed Leeuwenhoek to make groundbreaking discoveries about bacteria and other microorganisms.

Simple microscopes are no longer used for scientific research, as more powerful compound microscopes are available. However, they are still used in some educational settings and by hobbyists who enjoy collecting and observing small specimens.

Compound Microscope

A microscope is an instrument used to magnify objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. There are two main types of microscopes used in biology: compound and stereo.

A compound microscope uses a system of lenses to magnify an image. The first lens, called the objective lens, is located near the specimen, while the second lens, called the ocular lens, is located at the eyepiece end of the microscope. Compound microscopes can magnify an image up to 1000 times its original size.

A stereo microscope uses a system of mirrors to create an image that appears three-dimensional (3D). Stereo microscopes are often used to examine specimens that can not be seen clearly with a compound microscope, such as small insects.

Confocal Microscopes

The basic principle behind confocal microscopy is simple: a laser beam is used to illuminate a small area of the specimen, and the light that is reflected back is collected by a special detector. This process is repeated for every point in the specimen, and the resulting image is composed of thousands or even millions of tiny points of light, each representing a different location within the specimen.

Because only a small area of the specimen is illuminated at any given time, confocal microscopes can produce very high-resolution images. In fact, they are often able to produce images that are much sharper than those produced by traditional light microscopes. In addition, because only a very small amount of light is used to create an image, confocal microscopes can be used to study living specimens without harming them.

There are two main types of confocal microscopes: those that use one laser beam (single-beam systems) and those that use two laser beams (dual-beam systems). Single-beam systems are more common and tend to be less expensive than dual-beam systems. However, dual-beam systems have some advantages over single-beam systems, including higher resolution and greater flexibility in terms of imaging contrast agents (dyes that can be used to highlight specific features within a specimen).

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with the atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain information about the surface topography and composition of the sample. The image is displayed on a computer screen as a two-dimensional image. A SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer. In most applications, SEMs operate at an accelerating voltage between 5 kV and 30 kV, although low-voltage microscopes also exist (1โ€“5 kV). Large specimens can be examined at high vacuum (>10โˆ’6 Pa) or in low vacuum (<10โˆ’6 Pa). Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM): The transmission electron microscope (TEM) is a type of electron microscope that uses electromagnetic lenses to focus a beam of electrons through an object to form an image on a photographic film or plate. The electrons are transmitted through the specimen, which is typically thin enough to be transparent to them. TEMs have much higher resolution than light microscopes, allowing them to image objects as small as 0.2 nm in diameter.

Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM)

A transmission electron microscope (TEM) is a type of microscope that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of a specimen. The electrons are transmitted through the specimen, which is typically mounted on a grid, and interact with the atoms in the sample. The resulting image is magnified and can be projected on to a screen or photographed.

TEMs are powerful tools for investigating the structure of materials at the atomic level. They can be used to study both living and non-living specimens, and they have applications in fields as diverse as medicine, biology, manufacturing, and nanotechnology. TEMs are usually operated in vacuum chambers to minimize interference from air molecules.

There are two main types of TEMs: bright field TEMs and dark field TEMs. In a bright field TEM, electrons that pass through the specimen are detected by an electron detector, such as a photographic film or digital camera. This results in an image that appears bright against a dark background. In contrast, in a dark field TEM, electrons that do not pass through the specimen are detected by the electron detector. This results in an image that appears dark against a bright background.

Both bright field and dark field TEMS can be used to produce high-resolution images of specimens at atomic scales. However, dark field TEMS tend to be more sensitive than bright field TEMS and thus can provide better contrast for certain types of samples (e).

Phase Contrast Microscopes

A phase contrast microscope is an optical microscope that uses a specialized light source and optics to enhance the contrast in unstained, living specimens. The first phase contrast microscope was invented in 1931 by Dutch physicist Frits Zernike, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work.

Phase contrast microscopes are widely used in biology and medicine to observe living cells, bacteria, and other microorganisms. They are also used to study other small objects such as blood cells, spermatozoa, and crystals.

The basic principle behind phase contrast microscopy is simple: When light waves pass through a medium (such as air), they travel at different speeds depending on their wavelength (color). This difference in speed causes the waves to bend (refract) at different angles.

When light passes through a transparent object, such as a cell, some of the light waves are scattered while others pass straight through. The scattered light interferes with the straight-through light waves, causing them to cancel each other out or amplify each other depending on their relative phases. This interference creates areas of darkness and brightness that can be seen as contrasting areas when viewed through the microscope lens.

The amount of contrast between dark and bright areas can be increased by adding special lenses (called condenser lenses) to the microscope optics system. These lenses allow more scattered light waves to enter the microscope objective lens along with the straight-through waves. The result is a much greater degree of interference and an increase in overall contrast.


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